This is another test which is excellent for testing the Goodness of Fit of data but is more reliable. This is because it is in a class called Exactness Test which means that if the Null Hypothesis is true then you can be sure that your conclusions will be a false positve at most whatever the Power is: 5% in the default case. If you’re not sure what that means then I would recommend doing some further reading on Statistical Power and Confidence Intervals.

For us, we’re trying to use this to see if there is an association between two features. If there is then we’d expect to reject the null hypothesis - which is what will happen with our play data.

Fisher’s Exact Test in R

We’ll get our data from another online class which also includes the Sex along with what their preference was. We need this extra information for this test since at minimum it needs to be a 2x2 cross tabulation. That means we’ll borrow the code from before with an addition:

data <-read_csv("https://query.data.world/s/y5x2znfjt6gt5xr2gvg7vyhzqbgjr3", col_types ='iff')data %>%# format it as expectedxtabs(~ Pref + Sex, .)

Sex
Pref F M
B 29 17
A 2 12

In my previous post about the Chi-Squared, I skipped showing what happens when you push the formula notation into the xtabs function. All it really does is count the total per each category. And, now for the test:

data %>%# format it as expectedxtabs(~ Pref + Sex, .) %>%# pipe into the test for the results. fisher.test

Fisher's Exact Test for Count Data
data: .
p-value = 0.001877
alternative hypothesis: true odds ratio is not equal to 1
95 percent confidence interval:
1.862023 101.026914
sample estimates:
odds ratio
9.844814

Looking at this result, we can clearly say that we’re rejecting the null hypothesis and therefore there is an association between the two features.

Fisher’s Exact Test in Python

Again, Python is a tad finicky with this working. And again, we’re going to use the Pivot table approach which was used in the previous post about the Chi-Squared test:

import pandas as pdimport scipy as scidata = pd.read_csv('https://query.data.world/s/y5x2znfjt6gt5xr2gvg7vyhzqbgjr3')data['Pref'] = data.Pref.astype('category')sci.stats.fisher_exact( data.pivot_table(index ='Pref', columns ='Sex', aggfunc =len) )